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Government in Algeria
 
 
 

General

Algeria is a presidential republic, whereby the President of Algeria is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. The president was formerly limited to two five-year terms, but a constitutional amendment passed by the Parliament on 11 November 2008 removed this limitation. Algeria has universal suffrage at 18 years of age. The president is the head of the army, the Council of Ministers and the High Security Council. He appoints the prime minister who is also the head of government.

The Algerian parliament is bicameral, consisting of a lower chamber, the People's National Assembly (APN), with 389 seats, and an upper chamber, the Council of Nation, with 144 members. The APN is elected every 5 years. Two-thirds of the Council of the Nation are elected by regional and municipal authorities; the rest are appointed by the President. The Council of the Nation serves a 6-year term with one-half of the seats up for election or reappointment every 3 years. Either the President or one of the parliamentary chambers may initiate legislation. Legislation must be brought before both chambers before it becomes law. Sessions of the APN are televised.

The Algerian parliament is bicameral, consisting of the lower house, the People's National Assembly, with 462 members who are directly elected for five-year terms, while the upper house, the Council of the Nation, has 144 members serving six-year terms, of which 96 members are chosen by local assemblies and 48 are appointed by the president. According to the constitution, no political association may be formed if it is "based on differences in religion, language, race, gender, profession or region". In addition, political campaigns must be exempt from the aforementioned subjects.

Algeria has a long history of revolution and regime change, making the political climate dynamic and often in a state of change. The country is currently a constitutional republic with a democratically elected government, though the military, in practice, remain major power brokers. Since the early 1990s, a shift from socialism to a free market economy has been ongoing with official support.

Administratively, Algeria is divided into 48 wilaya (province) headed by walis (governors) who report to the Minister of Interior. Each wilaya is further divided into daïras, themselves divided in communes. The wilayas and communes are each governed by an elected assembly.

Overview

Country name : conventional long form: People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
conventional short form: Algeria
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Sha'biyah
local short form: Al Jaza'ir
Government type : republicm
Capital

: name: Algiers
geographic coordinates: 36 45 N, 3 03 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions : 48 provinces (wilayas, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanrasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen
Independence : 5 July 1962 (from France)
National holiday : Revolution Day, 1 November (1954)
Constitution : adopted 8 September 1963; amended several times, last in 2008 (2013)
Legal system
: mixed legal system of French civil law and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials including several Supreme Court justices
International law organisation participation : has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Suffrage : 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
: chief of state: President Abdelaziz Bouteflika (since 28 April 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Abdelmalek Sellal (since 28 April 2014)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president; note - on 5 May 2014, a new cabinet was announced
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held on 17 April 2014 (next to be held in April 2019)
election results: Abdelaziz Bouteflika re-elected president for a fourth term; percent of vote - Abdelaziz Bouteflika 81.5%, Ali Benflis 12.2%, Abdelaziz Elaid 3.4%, other 2.9%; voter turnout - 51.7%
Legislative branch

: bicameral Parliament consists of the Council of the Nation (upper house; 144 seats; one-third of the members appointed by the president, two-thirds elected by indirect vote to serve six-year terms; the constitution requires half the Council to be renewed every three years) and the National People's Assembly (lower house; 462 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: Council of the Nation - last held on 29 December 2012 (next to be held in December 2017); National People's Assembly - last held on 10 May 2012 (next to be held in 2017)
election results: Council of the Nation election of 29 December 2009 - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; National People's Assembly election of 10 May 2012 - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FLN 221, RND 70, AAV 47, FFS 21, PT 17, FNA 9, El Adala 7, MPA 6, PFJ 5, FC 4, PNSD 4, other 32, independents 19
Judicial branch : highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of 150 judges organised into four divisions: civil and commercial; social security and labour; criminal; and administrative; Constitutional Council (consists of 9 members including the court president)
note - Algeria's judicial system does not include sharia courts
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the High Council of Magistracy, an administrative body presided over by the president of the republic, and includes the republic vice-president and several members; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Council members - 3 appointed by the president of the republic, 2 each by the two houses of the Parliament, 1 by the Supreme Court, and 1 by the Council of State; Council president and members appointed for single 6-year terms with half of the membership renewed every 3 years
subordinate courts: appellate or wilaya courts; first instance or daira tribunals
Political parties and leaders

: Algerian National Front or FNA [Moussa Touati]; Algerian Popular Movement or MPA [Amara Benyounes]; Algerian Rally [Ali Zaghdoud]; Algeria's Hope Rally or TAJ [Amar Ghoul]; Dignity or El Karama [Mohamed Benhamou]; Front for Change or FC [Abdelmadjid Menasra]; Front for Justice and Development or El Adala [Abdallah Djaballah]; Future Front or El Mostakbel [Abdelaziz Belaid]; Green Algeria Alliance or AAV (includes Movement for National Reform, Islamic Renaissance Movement, and Movement of the Society of Peace or Hamas); Islamic Renaissance Movement or EnNahda Movement [Mohamed Dhouibi]; Movement of the Society of Peace or MSP [Abderrazak Mokri]; National Democratic Rally (Rassemblement National Democratique) or RND [Bensalah Abdelkader]; National Liberation Front or FLN [Amar Saidani]; National Party for Solidarity and Development or PNSD; National Reform Movement or Islah [Djahid Younsi] (see Green Algeria Alliance); New Dawn Party or PFJ; New Generation or Jil Jadid [Soufiane Djilali]; New Light Party [Bedreddine Belbaz]; Oath of 1954 or Ahd 54 [Ali Fawzi Rebaine]; Party of Justice and Liberty [Mohammed Said]; Rally for Culture and Democracy or RCD [Mohcine Belabbas]; Socialist Forces Front or FFS [Mustafa Bouchachi]; Workers Party or PT [Louisa Hanoune]
note: a law banning political parties based on religion was enacted in March 1997
Political pressure groups and leaders
: The Algerian Human Rights League or LADDH [Noureddine Benissad]; SOS Disparus [Nacera Dutour]; Youth Action Rally or RAJ
International organisation participation
: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, BIS, CAEU, CD, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US
: chief of mission: Ambassador Abdallah Baali (since 5 November 2008)
chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800
fax: [1] (202) 986-5906
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US
: chief of mission: Ambassador Henry S. Ensher (since July 2011)
embassy: 05 Chemin Cheikh Bachir, El-Ibrahimi, El-Biar 16030 Algiers
mailing address: B. P. 408, Alger-Gare, 16030 Algiers
telephone: [213] 770-08-2000
fax: [213] 770-08-2064
Flag description : two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white; a red, five-pointed star within a red crescent centred over the two-colour boundary; the colours represent Islam (green), purity and peace (white), and liberty (red); the crescent and star are also Islamic symbols, but the crescent is more closed than those of other Muslim countries because the Algerians believe the long crescent horns bring happiness
National symbol(s) : star and crescent; fennec fox
National anthem : name: "Kassaman" (We Pledge)
lyrics/music: Mufdi Zakariah/Mohamed Fawzi
note: adopted 1962; Zakariah wrote "Kassaman" as a poem while imprisoned in Algiers by French colonial forces
 

 
 

 



 


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